Background and methodology
Wheat is a major cereal grain in Sweden with one-third of its yield used for milling and baking. Commercially produced bread is therefore an important component of everyday diet in Sweden. The consumption of plain leavened bread has increased since 1995. In order to fulfill consumer expectations concerning bread, it is essential to offer a product of perceived high sensory quality with environmentally friendly methods acceptable to producers and consumers. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of farming systems, milling technique and variation in formulation on sensory attributes of whole wheat pan bread. Six samples of wheat from field trials were used. Three were grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems (biodynamic and ecological).
Milling technique has a greater impact on sensory qualities of bread on the slice area than did farming system and baking technique. Conventional wheat had lower protein and ash contents, but higher volume weight than did organic wheat. The sis wheat samples revealed that variation in bread’s sensory qualities was larger for the three organic samples than for the three conventional samples.
Kihlberg, I., Johansson, L., Kohler, A. & Risivik, E. (2004). Sensory qualities of whole wheat pan bread-influence of farming system milling and baking technique. Journal of Cereal Science 39:67-84.