This study conducted a long-term field trial to evaluate the effects of three farming methods (i.e., conventional farming, organic farming, and intermediate farming) on soil fertility and plant growth under a crop rotation of vegetables, sweet corn, and rice. The nitrogen (N) uptake of crops grown with chemical fertilizers (CFs) and organic fertilizers was also compared carefully over 7 consecutive years. The results revealed that only a fraction of the nitrogen N in chicken manure compost was available to crops immediately following application. Therefore, the fresh weight production and absorption of N by amaranth, water convolvulus, and sprouting broccoli plants were relatively minimal compared to those grown with chemical N fertilizers. However, the amount of N from the chicken manure compost met the nutrient requirements of rice and sweet corn. Application of chicken manure compost increased the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) and available phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) content, which is essential for enhancing soil quality. Because of the rapid decomposition of rapeseed seed meal (RSM), most of the N in RSM was mineralized immediately following application, which induced the rapid growth of leafy vegetables and increased yields. Application of compost with chemical fertilizers not only results in yields as high as those from pure chemical fertilizer treatment, but also improves SOM accumulation and soil fertility.
Wang, C., Farming Methods Effects on the Soil Fertility and Crop Production Under a Rice-Vegetables Cropping Sequences, Journal of Plant Nutrition, Volume: 37 Issue 9 Pages 1498-1513 Published: AUG 2014.